Manoj Kumar K.C.

Manoj Kumar K.C.Manoj Kumar K.C.

Mr. Manoj Kumar K.C. is currently a PhD student at Center for Peace & Conflict Studies (CPCS) which is affiliated to Pannasastra University of Cambodia. His PhD Research Title is “Enhancing Policing: A study of Human Security in Policing in the changed context of Nepal”. Through this research he is trying to deepen the understanding of security from human security perspective and devise the pragmatic ways by bringing together a wide cross-sectional stakeholder in building heightened sense of security in the community.
He holds MA in Applied Conflict Transformation Studies, Masters in Public Administration (MPA) and MA in Sociology. He is Superintendent of Police and currently Chief of District Police Office, Morang, Nepal. He has devised and experimented many different community building policing programs matching different local context in order to bring increased sense of security in the community. His programs include community building initiative by creating an informal dialogue platform with the poor and under privileged community is building trust and confidence towards police in the region. He has more than 20 years of law enforcement experience and worked more than 3 years in various post conflict environment in different parts of the world. He has already served as a United Nations Peace Keeper in Kosovo, former Yugoslavia and Haiti. His passion for peace building has become more intense after participating in UN Peacekeeping Mission.


Enhancing Policing: A Study of Human Security in Policing in the changed context of Nepal


Police are an integral part of today’s society. The term “policing” refers to the way in which the Police do their job in order to prevent crime, deal with violence and maintain order. Therefore, security and safety of the people and the society as a whole are associated with police. Nepal Police (NP) has a mandate to enhance safety and security in the community (Nepal Police, 1945).
As the NP is the primary public security agency entrusted with protecting the safety and security of Nepal, the level of crime in the society along with overall law and order situations are directly related to the Nepal police performance. During the period of political upheaval, NP suffered a lot in terms of maintaining law and order and Local Community members did not show considerable trust towards the police and their work (Search for Common Ground, 2013). Following the periods of conflict people’s efforts to rebuild their livelihoods and communities are often frustrated by insecurity. The insecurity perceived is not just a reflection of a lack of security provision, which is being utilized by criminals, but also manifestations of long standing grievances of the society ( Internations Alert, 2007).
Over time, Nepal Police has dabbled with different approaches to policing but the law and order model has been dominant. Nepal police has not able to implement any specific plan to enhance the security of the people living in different terrains and belong to the different sections of the society.
Statement of the Problem
As Nepal undergoes rapid changes in this post conflict time so too must the NP’s understanding of security. And Current policing strategies do not incorporate the security needs of the people, thus are unable to build remarkable sense of security in the society. There has been a major challenge for police to implement the appropriate policing strategies. Therefore, the research will explore on the following research Questions.

  1. What are the basic security issues in the changed context of Nepal?
  2. What are the prevailing understandings of security and insecurity amongst the people of Nepal?
  3. What are the existing gaps between the NP understanding of security and those understandings of the people of Nepal? And how do these gaps relate to the core security issues facing the country.
  4. How could the understanding of security of the NP be changed to provide a better sense of security for the people of Nepal?

Research Methodology

The research will adopt a mixed method. The baseline ideas and opinions will be explored through opinion survey of concerned respondents identified from the cluster of district. The opinion survey will be carried out from the geographically diverse location through the use of questionnaires. some form of focused group discussions and in-depth interview will also be used. However, Phenomenological inquiry is utilized to further develop the qualitative frame. The samples for the research will be from the one community of Metropolitan, two communities of municipality and one community from rural municipality of Tarai region and two communities from the hills regions. The samples will also be chosen at least one from east, west and central regions based on newly demarcated federal provinces. In the research both the qualitative and quantitative information will be collected through various methods.

Research Cycles

The five cycles will be designed for the research purpose. The first cycle involves identifying the security issues through secondary data. At least, one communities of Metropolitan, three Communities from municipality and two community from the Hill regions will be the taken for the opinion survey. The second cycle will involve the FGDs with the civil society members. The information gathered will be systematically analyzed and presented. In the third cycle, FGD will be conducted with the constables and Head constables, Junior officers and senior police officers.
The fourth cycle will be to structure the appropriate model. The analysis of the different models will be examined to compare the model in the broader context. The fifth cycle will be outside the PhD research. This will have a complete training design for the Community police officer in the police academy according the model developed. This will also include the outlining of the future area of study.


With the research outcome, Nepal Police will be able to deepen their concept of security to enhance the effectiveness of policing and better provide people with a stable sense of security and implement the appropriate policing strategies in the changed context of Nepal. However, this research contemplates numerous other potential compounding problems. One compounding variable will be to change resistant attitudes of the senior level Police officers. Other risks include gathering data from the communities that have been selected and also the civil societies as they might view the process unilaterally and their hesitancy in expressing opinions to a police officer.
Therefore, due considerable will be made during the research in order to gather the relevant data from the community and to explore the practical aspect of human security contributing the sense of insecurity and develop ways to enhance security the context of Nepal.

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